I suspect we are coming to the end of the most interesting finds in my garden. The new beds have been dug out and apart from three lilacs that are destined for the lawn, which will each have a circular bed around them for flowers, the digging has mainly stopped and we are now into laying membrane around trees and shrubs, over the top of which we are putting slate, wood bark and gravel. This will help to keep down the weeds, and provide a variety of textures throughout the garden, but will seal any remaining objects in the ground, perhaps for future gardeners to find. There are, however, still one or two pieces worth talking about in the existing collection of objects derived from the garden.
One of these finds, distinguished by the twist in the glass and its distinctive shape, is a fragment of a Hamilton / torpedo bottle. Like the Codd bottle, described in a previous post, it was designed to keep gas in bottles of fizzy water. The Codd bottle in some cases replaced the torpedo, which died out in the 19th Century and early 20th Century. Both were eventually replaced by crown caps that still seal many fizzy drinks today, particularly beers.
Fizzy (aerated, effervescent or carbonized) water, occurs naturally in the form of springs. My favourite is San Pellegrino. In 1772 Joseph Priestly set out to produce an equivalent of the natural sparkling water from a famous spring in Pyrmont in Germany, and achieved success by dissolving carbon dioxide in water. This achievement was considered so important that Priestly, a radical minister, was awarded the Copley Medal, the Royal Society’s most prestigious honour. The Science History Institute’s website describes the process as follows: “He had dripped a little oil of vitriol (sulfuric acid) on a mixture of chalk and water, caught the fixed air (carbon dioxide) that fizzed from the chalk in a bladder, and bubbled the fixed air through a column of water, which he then agitated at intervals.” Natural spring waters, each with different properties, were used for their medicinal and therapeutic benefits from antiquity, and were similarly popular in Europe in the 17th and 18th Centuries. Artificially produced carbonated water was also initially sold for its medicinal properties by pharmacists like J.F. Edisbury of Wrexham, who had his own mineral water works in Llangollen (and who has been discussed on a previous post), it was eventually mixed with fruit-flavoured syrups and sold to general consumers as a soft drink.
It quickly became obvious that a solution was needed to keep the gas in the water once it was placed in a container. At first earthenware bottles were employed by early producers such as Joseph Schweppe (the founder of Schweppes, of course), who set up his business in Bristol in 1794. At that time, Bristol was a thriving port, third in importance only to London and Liverpool, and a hub for businesses of all sorts. As Schweppe and other discovered, in earthenware bottles the gas soon escaped and the drink went flat.
Glass bottles closed with corks followed, but there were two potential problems with this approach. First, a build-up of pressure in the bottle could cause the corks to fly out, resulting not only in a mess but, again, a flat drink. Second, if the corks were not kept moist they shrank, with the same result – a flat drink and an unhappy customer. This caused something of a problem between supplier and retailer. The solution was to store bottles on their sides, but retailers were reluctant to go to this trouble because of the problems of stacking the bottles.
In 1809, William Francis Hamilton of Dublin filed a patent for a method of producing mineral water, which included a description of storage devices employed, one of which was a torpedo-shaped bottle with a tapering, rounded end that had to be stored on its side. Torpedo-shaped bottles had already been in existence before Hamilton’s patent, and he seems to have been using torpedo bottles as one of a number of storage solutions. However, the torpedo obviously won out and he apparently went into production of the bottles in 1814. It took time for them to become popular, but by the 1840s they were widely in use and they were used until the First World War.
Not all bottles are marked with manufacturer details. Embossing only became popular in the latter half of the 19th Century, when it became something of a mania following the introduction of hinged moulds. Usually the manufacturer’s name was added to the bottle, and was sometime accompanied by details of the product that the bottle contained. The one in the photograph at the top of the page had none, but my fragment has embossed letters, which were built into the mould into which the molten glass was poured to produce the bottle. The letters on my bottle are incomplete and show either “TERE” or “IERE” (the bottom of the T or I is missing). It is possible that, if TERE, it read CHESTER, MANCHESTER, LEICESTER etc (all areas where mineral waters were produced), with the E representing the beginning of a new word. Equally, the TER could be the last letters of WATER, and the E again the beginning of a new word. The fragment of the final letter can only be a B, D, E, F or P. Any guesses, anyone?
The heavy embossing of the bottle indicates that this bottle was made in the late 19th Century, or later. This is in keeping with the other bottles found in the garden: from the Lion Brewery, Chester, J.F. Edisbury, Wrexham (both heavily embossed, the latter with a crossed-fox logo) and the Codd bottle. Both the Hamilton / torpedo and Codd bottles were eventually made redundant with the introduction of crown caps, which Joseph Schweppe first employed in 1903.
Books and papers
Hedges, A.A.C. 1975. Bottles and Bottle Collecting. Shire Publications Ltd.
Hamilton, W.F. 1810. Specification of the Patent granted to William Frances Hamilton. The Repertory of Arts, Manufactures, and Agriculture, Sixteenth Volume, Second Series.
Available on Google Books: https://tinyurl.com/35bcf5tm
Science History Institute